to Caring For Your Adopted Cat or Kitten
You're the proud new caregiver for a wonderful rescued kitten or
cat! To help make your transition into a new life together easier,
we have put together this guide. Even if you are an experienced
pet caregiver, there may be some new information here, so please
take a few minutes to read over this guide.
You Met Your Pet
Your Cat Feel at Home
Posts and Cat Trees
- in Humans and in Cats
Before You Met Your Pet
Your cat will already be spayed or neutered unless he or she is
too young to undergo surgery. In this case, the cost of the
surgery is included in your adoption fee, and you will need
to schedule an appointment when your kitten is 4-5 months old
and your vet considers him or her ready.
Unless you were otherwise notified, your cat tested negative for
Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia (FeLv).
If your cat tested positive, the adoption co-coordinator will go
over any special care or precautions needed.
Your cat or kitten was fed a premium cat food. Ask your adoption
co-coordinator about the appropriate brand, because switching diets
may upset your pet's digestion.
All cats and kittens are litter box trained, they normally learn
fastidious hygiene from their mother.
Your cat has received the vaccinations appropriate for his or her
age. If she is over 8 months old, she will require semi-annual boosters.
Kittens may require additional vaccinations when they reach a certain
age - your adoption co-coordinator can discuss this with you.
Before you bring your new cat home, have ready food, dishes, scratching
post or box, litter box and litter, and a carrier or crate.
Making Your Cat Feel at Home
The First Day Home
new cat has just spent some time living in a cage or foster home,
awaiting adoption. She may not be used to large, open spaces and
may become scared or overwhelmed if released into large apartment
or entire house on her own. Therefore, it is best to keep her confined
one room or a small area to start with.
you pick up your new cat, prepare the room for her arrival:
any houseplants (even non-poisonous plants)
any objects that may be dangerous to a cat - unstable shelves,
things that could fall over if jumped on, etc.
other pets out of the room for at least a few days
a carrier or crate in a private, quiet corner, with appropriate
bedding (you may wish to use the carrier you bring your cat home
in). Cats feel more secure if they have a "safe cave"
to retreat to
out food and water, fill the litter box with litter, and arrange
the items near the carrier (you may later move them gradually
to other areas of the house when your cat is given access to them)
you arrive with your new cat, go into the designated room, close
the door, and set the carrier down. Open the door, and then remain
nearby quietly to see if she will emerge. Don't force her to come
out, let her come out on her own time. Some cats may not come out
until night time. If she does not want to come out right away, make
sure the food and water dishes are nearby, as is the litter box.
You can demonstrate digging with a scoop so your new cat gets the
The Next Few Days
a rule, cats are very upset by changes in their environment. Some
cats will adjust more quickly, while others may take weeks or months.
You must have the patience and understanding to allow your cat to
adjust at her own pace. When you first bring her home, your cat
is likely to hide - this is why you need to provide a safe, comfortable
place for her to retreat to.
not to disturb her if she feels the need to hide, but try to spend
time nearby, or try to tempt her with a favorite toy. If your cat
seems nervous and afraid, do not try to pick her up or force bonding
right away. You need to have patience and try to understand how
overwhelming this change is for your cat!
as much time in the room with her as you can, even if you are working
or doing something else. The more time you spend with your new cat,
the faster and stronger the bond will form. If she does not want
to be picked up, try brushing her or playing with a toy. Being picked
up is a very intimidating process for a cat, and many who are very
friendly and cuddly still object to the process. Place a chair in
the room and try sitting and inviting the cat onto your lap instead
of picking her up. Or, sit on the floor on her level. Some cats
may come close to you if you sit on a bed.
pets may be introduced gradually if your cat seems to be confident
and not too timid. You should keep your new cat enclosed in the
crate or carrier while introducing the other pets gradually. Do
not leave the pets together unsupervised until they have had several
weeks of SUPERVISED interaction. This is especially important with
dogs - even friendly ones. A chase scene will make future interactions
much more difficult.
c) The Rest of the House
It is impossible to give an estimate
of the length of time it will take before your cat is ready to have
access to the rest of the house. Some cats are by nature more bold
and adventurous than others. Many of the Stanford Cat Network cats
have been abandoned and/or neglected before they were rescued. That
experience tends to make them less confident of unknown situations.
Your cat may have known real fear that many house-born kittens have
never experienced, such as experiences with traffic, dogs, or wildlife.
So be patient and let your pet tell
you when she is ready to explore outside her own space. Signs that
she may be ready include scratching or meowing at the door and trying
to run out when you open the door. When she feels at home in her
own space, has explored the room thoroughly and does not hide in
her "house" all the time, then you can try giving her
access to the rest of the house. Continue keeping her food, water
and litter where they are presently located.
Even if your cat has decided she
wants to explore, she may still be easily frightened by sudden noises
or too much open space. Keep your cat's own space set up exactly
as it has been, so she has a refuge that is familiar to her. This
feeling of familiarity is very important to cats. Try to confine
her to the original room at night and when you are absent, so that
she doesn't run into any trouble - especially if you have other
Once your cat is relaxed and confident
in her new home, you will notice that she starts paying more attention
to you! For a long time, her new surroundings will overwhelm her
and you may feel ignored or shunned at times. Do not take this personally,
try to be understanding of how your pet must feel!
Now, you must be very careful to
avoid letting your cat outdoors. Your adoption contract specified
that the cat will be kept indoors at all times, unless a special
exception was made. This is especially crucial during the first
6 months. If your cat escapes during this adjustment period you
may never see her again! Once outside, a cat in a new home often
panics and starts to run blindly, in danger of being hit by a car
and getting lost. To avoid this occurrence, be vigilant about opening
and closing outside doors quickly. This may be difficult if children
are present, so speak to them about the importance of this matter.
Also, if your house has a vestibule or double door, try to use this
entrance so the inner door is closed before the outer one opens
and vice versa.
quality cat foods such as Innova
Variety Instinct, or Wellness
may cost more per bag, but they are more digestible and therefore
your cat needs to eat less of the food, costing less money overall.
These foods have higher quality protein and less filler that is
present in the supermarket brands such as Friskies, Whiskas, Purina,
etc. If a cat eats a food with low quality protein (often derived
from beaks, feet and heads of animals or from corn gluten) they
absorb less usable nutrients. This not only causes poor health,
it leads to greater volume of stool in the litter box and foul-smelling
feces due to all the undigested matter. Supermarket brands often
contain artificial colors and preservatives that can cause liver
damage and allergic reactions. Feeding high quality food helps
avoid medical problems such as urinary crystals and intestinal
disorders. Feeding your cat the best quality food is an investment
in their health for life.
food should not be fed free-choice, meaning that the food bowl
is always kept full. This method works for some cats, but
many will over-eat given the opportunity, and become obese.
If your cat is consuming more than the recommended amount (read
the bag) or if your vet says that your cat is overweight, you
may need to ration the food.
Obesity is unhealthy and can lead to musculoskeletal
and heart problems in later life. However, NEVER starve a cat! Cats
must eat on at least a daily basis, or they will experience permanent
liver damage. If you feed controlled amounts, it is best to
feed in 2 or 3 meals a day, but you must feed your cat at least
once each day.
or "wet" food is beneficial because
it increases your cat's water intake (see section "water")
and generally contains a higher percentage of meat than dry food,
which requires a higher carbohydrate level to allow the food to
bake into kibble. You may have heard the old information about
dry food cleaning cats' teeth and being good for them - but recent
research shows that dry food does nothing at all to clean cats'
teeth, it crumbles upon the slightest pressure and cats' teeth
are not designed for grinding, they tear and swallow meat. In
fact, dry food with its higher carbohydrate content is more likely
to stick in between your cats' teeth and cause tartar and decay!
You can read more about cat nutrition at these websites: felinenutrition.net and catnutrition.org
require greater amounts of food per body weight than adult cats,
because they are still growing muscles, organs, and bones. Feed
kittens in 3-4 meals each day, for adult cats transition to 2-3
meals per day. It
is a myth of the pet food industry that kittens and senior cat
need special formulas of food. Once they are weaned, kittens
eat the same thing their parents do - mice, rabbits, and other
small prey. They simply need to eat more to sustain their growth
Cats need constant access to fresh, clean water.
They should be encouraged to drink as much as possible. Increasing
your cat's water intake helps flush the kidneys and urinary system,
reducing the risk of urinary tract infections and disease. You
can encourage your cat to consume more water by; feeding wet food,
always keeping the water fresh, and putting out multiple water
dishes - especially in a larger house. Experiment to determine
what type of container your cat likes to drink out of - flat, wide
dishes; cups; bowls. Also available are pet
water fountains which circulate and filter water, and many cats
love to drink from these.
litter of the appropriate type is vital to your cat's health
and happiness. Cats will show their displeasure with a dirty
box by defecating or urinating outside the box, and you do not
want to start such behavior. Also, dirty litter boxes breed bacteria
which your cat will get on her paws, track through your house,
and ingest. This can cause infections in your cat such as urinary
tract infections, as bacteria spread from your cat's paws to
urethra while your cat cleans herself.
A good rule of thumb is: if the litter box is
not clean enough that you feel comfortable sticking your bare hand
in there or stepping in it with your bare foot, it is not clean
enough to expect your cat to walk in it either.
cats prefer "clumping" litter
because of it sandy texture. These types of litter are easy to
clean daily, because the feces and urine form clumps that are
easily sifted out. There are very few litters that are free of
perfumes and dust. Never use scented cat litter, a cat's sense
of smell is many times more sensitive than a human's and what
seems like a light scent to you is an overpowering smell to your
cat. We recommend Dr. Elsey's Ultra clumping cat litter (clay),
World's Best Cat Litter (corn), or some store brands of plain
clumping clay that are unscented and dust free.
We do not recommend silica gel litter pearls.
Silica gel is a dessicant and it is very irritating to the eyes,
respiratory tract and it is dangerous to ingest. Although these
types of litter claim to be dust free, handling some with your
bare hands will leave your skin coated with a fine, slippery dust.
Every time your cat visits the box he will get this dust on his
feet and later ingest it during grooming. Also cats dislike the
texture of the rock-like pearls or the sharp jagged crystals.
Likewise, wood pellets or pine litter is not recommended
because of its strong smell, which tends to repel cats. Most cats
strongly dislike the texture of pellets and will refuse to use
such a litter.
Non-clumping "regular" litter must be
completely changed every few days, and the feces must be removed
daily. Litter boxes that allow air circulation are best for non-clumping
litter, because it allows the wetness to dry, reducing bacteria
more tips on how to avoid litter box problems, how to clean a
litter box, and types of litter, please see Dr.
Playtime is fun for cat and human, and it's a great
way to ensure that your cat gets important exercise! Interactive
toys, such as laser pointers (avoid shining in the eyes!) and feather
wands are a great way to bond with your cat while having a fun time.
Safe play involves a few common sense precautions; If you notice
your cat breathing heavily or panting, stop playing until her breathing
returns to normal.
Do not leave toys out that your cat could choke
on or swallow - this includes any string or toy containing string,
elastic parts, or small possibly detachable parts. Never let your
cat play with rubber bands or items smaller than a ping-pong ball.
Do not leave string, yarn, or thread out, if swallowed it can wrap
around intestines, requiring surgery or causing severe internal
Excellent toys include: laser pointers (chase the
red dot), feather wands (hide it in a drawer when unattended), stuffed
catnip mice, Woolly Bullies made of real wool, old socks stuffed
with catnip and knotted, cat dancer toy.
7. Scratching Posts and Cat
Cats scratch surfaces as a way of marking territory
and to remove old claw sheaths. It is a natural part of cat behavior,
and must be accepted as such. Declawing is a cruel and unnecessary
surgery, banned in the UK and other countries because it is inhumane.
The adoption contract you signed specified that the cat you adopted
must never be declawed. Although many vets still provide this surgery,
it is becoming more and more unpopular in the USA as pet owners
become educated about the procedure, which involves the removal
of the last bone and tendons in each digit of the paw.
In order to avoid the destruction of furniture
or carpets, immediately provide your cat with her own scratching
surface. You may need to try several types to find out which one
she prefers. Some variants are; sisal rope, wood, carpet, and cardboard.
Most cats prefer a tall, vertical surface to stretch
up against and scratch. You can construct a simple cat tree by
following the directions in our newsletter.
The Purrfect Post is also tested and approved by many SCN cats!
All pet stores sell scratching posts, but the small
ones are usually ignored by cats, Much preferable are the "cat
trees" that often include a nest or bed of some sort. By providing
your cat with her own piece of furniture, you will help avoid having
her claim yours! Search the Internet for instructions on building
your own - one good site is http://www.amby.com/cat_site/declaw.html.
If training and providing a scratching post do
not solve your problem, there are many alternatives to declawing.
Trimming your cat's claws is easy and need only be done once a month.
Also, Soft Paws
can be used - they are plastic covers that are glued to the claw
using an adhesive similar to the one used for fake nails that humans
wear. They are available in many pet food stores, or from your vet.
Your vet can apply them if you are unable to do it. Contact Stanford
Cat Network for help and info training your cat!
8. Training and Behavior
If you provide a scratching post and your cat still
insists on going for your furniture, there are many ways to discourage
this. You can spray the area with Feliway
or citrus extract which cats hate the smell of. You could try one
of the cat repellents sold in pet stores. Some pet stores sell an
items called "sticky paws" which goes on the furniture
like double-sided tape, and makes the surface unappealing to the
Likewise, if you wish to train your cat not to
jump on counters or observe other "house rules", it is
possible to train a cat through POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT. Cats respond
to rewards for good behavior.
Positive reinforcement is the best training aid,
because it is effective and it encourages the cat to view you as
a source of reward and not punishment. For example, reward your
cat with treats, catnip, or praise for using her own scratching
post - rather than punishing her for using something else.
NEVER punish your cat physically for any reason
- cats do not associate such punishment with misbehavior, they only
associate it with you, and will learn to fear you. A spray bottle
filled with water (a clean one bought for the purpose - NOT an empty
cleaner bottle) or water pistol can be used to discourage behavior
such as scratching furniture, jumping on surfaces, etc. The cat
must not see the bottle in use, they must think the water spray
is a direct result of the misbehavior. Otherwise, the cat will know
she is safe as long as she does not get caught! Training by water
correction is only effective if you apply it immediately and consistently!
If you are gone all day, do not expect your cat to stay off countertops.
Cats are mischievous and curious by nature!
9. Fleas and Parasites
Keeping your cat indoors will avoid most instances
of infestation by internal and external parasites. However, there
is a chance that your cat can pick these up, especially if a dog
in the house brings in fleas. Fleas must be dealt with immediately,
or they may infest the house, causing great discomfort to pets and
humans. Fleas also spread tapeworms and diseases.
control is easy with modern treatments. Consult your vet and
obtain a monthly application of a product such as Advantage or
Revolution, which are applied as a drop to the skin on the back
of the cat's head, and kill all life stages of fleas for up to
one month. These products are very safe when used as directed.
Avoid all over the counter brands
of flea control because somare very unsafe and have been implicated
in pet deaths and illness. If the house is heavily infested your
vet may also recommend a spray for the carpet and furniture,
but it is not usually necessary.
parasites are detected by examination of a stool sample. Your
cat's annual exam should include a check of the stool, and if
worms are detected your vet will treat the cat. Many parasites
can be treated with a single dose. Left untreated, internal
parasites can cause severe health damage and some parasites could
kill your pet.
Your cat or kitten received a microchip, a tiny
device implanted beneath the skin between her shoulder blades. The
chip has a number encoded which can be read by a special scanner,
and that number is registered in a national database with your name,
address, and telephone number. If your cat ever becomes lost and
is turned in to a shelter or brought to a vet, most facilities scan
incoming animals for a microchip. The facility then calls the AKC
Companion Animal Recovery 24 hour network, and finds your contact
information. If you move, remember to update your pet's registration
by calling 1-800-252-7894.
The microchip is only useful when your pet is turned
in to a facility that has a scanner. Your pet should wear visible
identification too, even though you are keeping her indoors. There
is always the chance of escape. Only use break-away collars on cats!
Cats can get the collar caught and may choke in a regular collar.
The collar should fit loose enough to allow 2 fingers under it,
but not loose enough to come off over the head. Make sure you check
the fit of the collar frequently, especially on growing kittens.
Adult cats can also gain weight and outgrow a collar. A tight collar
can inhibit breathing and cause great discomfort. Small tags are
best for cats, or get a collar with name and phone number printed
right on it.Read about the importance of fitting the collar in our
11. Veterinary Care
Included in this package is a series of articles
on cat health written by veterinarians. It is a good idea to read
these over at your leisure, so you know some of the most common
health problems in cats and what symptoms to watch for. Practice
preventative health while your cat is young, to avoid problems as
she gets older. Preventative health includes the following important
Veterinary Exam. A routine exam should be done yearly, to
spot any potential problems early. Your vet may recommend lab
analysis of blood samples for older cats, to check for signs of
kidney disease or other major problems
health evaluation. Check your cat for signs of health problems,
to catch them early. Ask you vet to show you what to check for.
care. Tartar and plaque not only leads to gingivitis and tooth
loss, but the bacteria present can cause damage to organs such
as kidneys, liver and heart, shortening your pet's life. Many
vets now recommend a veterinary dental cleaning every 2 years.
a premium food. Your cat is what she eats. If you ate
McDonald's every day would you expect to live a long healthy life?
Friskies, Meow Mix etc are junk food for cats.
a healthy weight. Obesity is as dangerous for cats as it is
for humans - make sure you cat gets plenty of exercise and does
We recommend that your adult, indoor-only cat is vaccinated
with the FVRCP booster every 1-2 years, and rabies every 3-7
years. Most studies have shown that the protection from these
vaccines lasts much longer than one year, and other studies
have shown that in some cats too-frequent vaccinations can
cause allergic reactions or injection site tumors. We do
not recommend any other
vaccinations except for cats at high risk for other diseases.
care will minimize your cat's chances of developing disease or illness,
but nothing can guarantee her safety. Being alert to changes in
her behavior and body will help you identify potential problems
early, and bring her to the vet. With any illness, your cat stands
a much better chance if the problem is diagnosed and treated immediately.
vet care can be an unexpected expense. It is a good idea to set
aside some saving for such emergencies. Or, keep a special credit
card empty for an emergency. Veterinary health insurance is also
available, ask your veterinarian for information about a recommended
Although cats are smart, alert,
and adroit, they are no match for the many perils that await them
outside. That's why the average lifespan for an outdoor cat is 5
years, as compared to an average life span of 15 years
for an indoor cat! Some people argue that it is not "natural"
to keep cats inside. But domestic cats are not wild animals. They
were domesticated and bred by humans, and made dependent on us.
It is our responsibility now to protect them from danger.
Dangers to Outdoor Cats
• Cars: Cats are incapable
of understanding something that moves as quickly as a car. They
will cross roads, assuming they can outrun any danger. Outdoor cats
stand a 50% chance of being killed by a car.
• Animal Attacks: Dogs, coyotes,
raccoons, and other animals may attack and wound or kill cats. Other
cats may fight with yours, and cause injuries that could lead to
infections and abscesses.
• Disease: Outdoor cats encounter
other cats, and can pick up life-threatening diseases. Many of these
communicable diseases have no effective vaccine and no cure.
• Accidents: Besides car accidents,
outdoor cats are in danger of being poisoned, getting caught in
traps set for other animals, getting closed into buildings and starving,
and countless other accidents which can easily befall a cat.
• Human Malice: Not everyone
loves cats. There are those people who may torture and/or kill any
they find. There are people who intentionally poison cats because
they "dig up their garden", and there are sadistic people
who torture and kill animals for amusement. Keep your cat safe from
these sick people, keep her indoors!
• Animal Experiments: Research
labs purchase cats for experiments, and some unscrupulous people
will pick up pets and sell them to these companies. They will remove
collars and lie about where they found the cat. Even if your pet
has a microchip, the lab company may neglect to scan for chips.
Keeping your Cat Happy Indoors
• Grow "cat grass"
(barley or wheatgrass) in a pot for your cat to chew. You can buy
sprouted cat grass at most pet food stores, or you can grow seeds
of barley, wheat, and/or oats. Some cats may vomit if they eat cat
grass, if your cat does don't feed her grass.
• Build or buy a "cat
tree" for climbing and watching the world. Cat trees provide
fun and a lot of climbing exercise. They can compensate for a small
apartment by providing vertical space. Ideally these can be placed
near a window for a great view.
• Get a cat condo and/or bed
so your cat has a safe "den" in which to sleep or just
• Provide lots of toys - both
interactive (such as feather wands or cat charmers) and toys that
the cat can play with safely herself, such as catnip mice or balls.
It is best to "ration" toys or rotate them, if the cat
loses interest you can hide the toy away for a while and use another
• Provide companionship -
human or animal. Playtime and petting are very important. If your
cats get along well with others, consider getting a friend - cats
are social animal contrary to popular belief.
• Bird feeders can be placed
in an area outside a window, to serve as a "kitty TV".
Just be sure the screen and window are very secure (as they should
be in any case), to avoid cats going through the screen! Fish tanks
(sturdily covered) also provide great entertainment.
• Leave windows open (with
very secure screens) for fresh air, sounds, and smells from outside.
If possible leave a window partly open while you are away, too.
But make sure the cats can't claw out the screen!
Although cats clean themselves thoroughly,
brushing her coat will reduce shedding on furniture and increase
the health of the hair. Brushing will also reduce the amount of
hair ingested by the cat, and help reduce hairballs as a result.
Medium or long-haired cats need more grooming care than short haired
cats, because they may form tangles and mats which they cannot remove
in their own. It is important to keep your cat's hair free of tangles
and mats, because these will pull on the hair, causing restriction
of blood flow, and can eventually lead to serious skin problems.
Experiment with types of brushes,
from "slicker" wire brushed to soft-bristled brushes,
and rubber "curries" to see what your cat prefers. Brush
gently but firmly in the direction of the hair growth. At first,
stick to the back, since many cats have ticklish tummies and may
not enjoy brushing in sensitive areas.
If your medium or long-haired cat
develops mats or tangles in a sensitive area, it is still necessary
to remove them. You will have to catch her in a relaxed mood, and
do it as gently as possible. Special tools are sold for removing
mats that minimize pulling. If you are not able to remove the mats
you can bring the cat to your vet or groomer to have it done. Sometimes
long haired cats have fluffy back ends, which can get dirty when
they use the litter box. For sanitation reasons it is often necessary
to trim fur from behind the rear legs.
14. Allergies - in Humans
and in Cats
Allergies in Humans
People who are allergic to cats are actually allergic
to a protein called Fel d1 found in cats' saliva, urine and feces.
Cats lick their fur and the saliva dries and flakes off, and is
present in the air. Unfortunately, allergies are one of the main
reasons people give for giving up their pet. Most of these people
do not realize that there are ways of reducing or eliminating their
allergy problems. Following are several simple strategies you can
use to minimize your chances of developing allergies and ways of
coping with them if you have them.
you do have allergies, use Allerpet/C
- a natural enzyme product clinically proven to reduce allergy
problems for cat owners.
fresh air in your home as much as possible. Open windows, change
air filters on furnaces and air conditioners often.
your cat a premium food, the proper balance of essential fatty
acids and nutrients will keep skin and hair in optimal condition,
reducing shedding and dander.
litter boxes daily, if you are allergic have someone else do it
or get an automatic litter box.
a HEPA air filter and use it in your bedroom, these filters remove
99% of all allergens from the air.
cat beds, cover slips and blankets that the cat sleeps on frequently.
your cat frequently and dispose of the dead hair. Have someone
else do this for you if you yourself are allergic.
your cat once a week with a cloth dampened with warm water. Do
not bathe her with soap, because she will lick herself more and
increase the saliva on her coat. You can also purchase pre-moistened
"cat wipes" at many pet supply stores.
your hands after touching your pet, before eating or touching
sure you use allergen-filter vacuum bags to avoid distributing
allergens into the air when you clean.
your cat out of your bedroom - if you breathe allergen-free air
while you sleep your tolerance during the day will be better.
your doctor about allergy shots if you continue to suffer from
Allergies in Cats
Skin conditions and other symptoms
may occur due to allergies in your cat. The most common type of
allergies are food allergies, which can develop gradually even if
your cat has been eating the same food all her life. The first thing
you should try in response to possible allergies is to switch the
food to a formula with few additives, try Nutro Natural Choice or
Royal Canin Special 33 for Sensitive Stomachs.
Many animals develop allergies to
corn, so switch to a formula that uses rice instead - check the
label for corn or corn meal. It can take a few days for symptoms
to clear up, but you should notice a difference within a week if
the food was the culprit. Consult your vet for treatment if changing
the food didn't help.
Flea treatments, lawn fertilizers,
dyes, and other chemicals may cause allergies and irritation of
the skin or mucus membranes. Make sure your pet does not come into
contact with any of these substances.
Cat Network. Version 1/20/03